Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism from nutrition point of view

Welcome again to my cool medical articles and as a continue, today I will talk about carbohydrates again but this time I will talk about how our bodies act on sugars.
Our health topic today is very rich in information about health as our bodies start digesting sugars from mouth till full digestion and absorption in small intestine and large intestine.
Carbohydrates (as I mentioned in my first medical article on nutrition) divided to mono and polysaccharides (or simple and complex). Both of those types are acted on the same only that polysaccharides take longer time.
The first health question I will answer in this amazing medical article is that how we digest sugars.
According latest medical news, our mouth start sugar digestion by excretion of ptyalin (salivary amylase) which hydrolyze starch to alpha-dextrin. But this enzyme deactivated by stomach acids.
Then pancreatic amylase take actions in small intestine. It is similar salivary amylase but more potent.
Our bodies then digest alpha-dextrin by gluco-amylase producing maltose (di-saccharide). Further maltose is digested by maltase enzyme.
Here as we see , our bodies try to change poly and di-saccharides to mono-saccharides easily absorbed.
·        Di-saccharides are digested by their enzymes like (maltase , sucrase … etc.)
·        Some types of complex sugars are digested by flora in large intestine.
·        Fructose is absorbed unchanged but other sugars are absorbed in change with Na.
After digestion, glucose enters cell under the effect of insulin except in brain.
Then cells catabolize glucose to pyruvate by glycolysis.
Many health information but still I will go on more deep in this health topic.
After glucose is converted to pyruvate(fig.1), pyruvate enters one of two pathways:
  • 1.     Aerobic pathway (Krebs’ cycle) will convert pyruvate to acetyl co-a and H2O and about 25 ATP (fig.2)
krebs' cycle
  • 2.     Anaerobic pathway will convert pyruvate to lactic acid and only 8 ATP.

·        According to latest medical news, there is another pathway called pentose phosphate pathway.
Last thing in this cool medical article, glucose is regulated continuously in our bodies under effect of glucagon and insulin mainly and other hormones like growth hormone.
This regulation is in the form of glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis as follows:
  • 1        Glycogenolysis is a process that converts glycogen to glucose to produce energy under effect of insulin mainly.
  • 2.     Gluconeogenesis is a process of converting any simple compound ass amino acids to glucose .
  • 3.     Glycogenesis is a process of converting glucose to glycogen to store it under effect of glucagon mainly.

Hope you enjoyed my short medical article.
Keep reading following amazing medical articles which will contain more health topics and important health information.

Good bye 😄
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