Diabetes mellitus: types and diagnosis

Here, we meet again in our tenth short medical article in our nutritional series.
We reached the amazing parts, I will talk ,here and on, about major health events which take place in the form of diseases. I will start with a well known disease called diabetes mellitus.
First of all, diabetes mellitus is a major health problem nowadays. Its prevalence rate after age of 50 is 10-15%. So let us go and know some health information about DM.
DM is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance or both leading to disturbance of metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, electrolytes and water.
What a long definition, in simple words , Diabetes Mellitus is a health problem of decreasing insulin or resistance of insulin receptors.
DM is classified into:
  • ·        Type 1 DM : ( absolute insulin deficiency) Some times called juvenile type (old name). 
  • ·        Type 2 DM: ( insulin resistance) and is called adult diabetes (also old name)
  • ·        Other types:

o   MODY (will be discussed in separate medical article)
o   Genetic defect in insulin action:
§  Type A
§  Lipodystrophy
o   Pancreatic diseases:
§  Pancreatitis
§  Cystic fibrosis
§  heamochromatosis
o   Endocrinopathies:
§  Acromegaly
§  Cushing
§  Hyperthyroidism
o   Drugs:
§  Beta-blockers
§  Glucocorticoids
§  Thiazide
o   Syndromes associated with DM:
§  Down’s Syndrome
§  Turner’s Syndrome
§  Huntington’s chorea
o   Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
Lots of causes, now it is the time for how to diagnose DM in this cool medical article.
According to latest health news, DM is diagnosed upon the presence of one of the following:
HbA1c equal to or more than 6.5% 
Ø Persistence of DM symptoms e.g. polyuria, polydipsia, rapid weight loss with random plasma sugar more than or equal to 200 mg/dl.
Ø Fasting plasma glucose more than or equal to 126 mg/dl. And post-prandial more than or equal to 200 mg/dl.
Ø Random plasma glucose more than or equal 200 mg/dl.
From this short medical article, we knew what DM is, its classifications and of course its diagnosis. So keep reading our series to know DM complications, treatment, more health information about its types and more….'
Before saying good bye, I will leave some notifications:
v IGT (impaired glucose tolerance) and IFG (impaired fasting glucose) are state between normal person and DM and considered as type 2 DM risk factors.
v Glucose measured in plasma is 10% greater than that of whole blood.
Now, good bye ;)


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