DM: retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy

Hi again to my short medical article, hoping you all are in good health devoid of any health problems.
In this cool medical article, I will continue our health topic on DM complications.
In the last amazing medical article, we talked about vascular, GI, genitourinary and hepatic complication; today I will go for retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. Those three caused by same way as a part of micro vascular complications. They tend to appear after 10 to 20 years after getting DM in young and much earlier in adults as they recognize DM late.
1. Retinopathy:
·        DM causes increase in thickness of capillary basement membrane with increased permeability of the retinal capillaries.
·        Some aneurysmal dilatation may occur in some vessels while others become occluded, these changes detected by fluorescein angiography.
·        Chronic retinal hypoxia stimulates production of vascular endothelial growth factor causing new vessel formation and increased vascular permeability causing  exudative damage:
ü Peripheral retinopathy
v Background retinopathy due to increased capillary permeability characterized by:
o   Capillary micro aneurysms
o   Hemorrhages
o   Exudate rich in lipids and proteins (hard exudates)
v Pre proliferative retinopathy with cotton wall spots and venous beading
v Proliferative retinopathy due to hypoxia or ischemia of retina:
o   Neovascularization due to retinal ischemia
o   Vitreous hemorrhages
v Advanced retinopathy including retinal detachment and retinal fibrosis.
ü Central retinopathy as:

·        Diabetic maculopathy which may lead to blindness in absence of proliferation as there is macular edema with macular damage.
Neuropathy

After all those medical information about diabetic retinopathy, I will go next one.
2. Diabetic neuropathy:
·  The vascular hypothesis postulates occlusion of the vasa nervorum is the primary cause of peripheral neuropathy.
·   Also it may be due to accumulation of sorbitol within Schwann cells
·  Represented early by delayed nerve conduction velocity.
Schwann cell injury, axonal damage and myelin degeneration will occur
nephropathy

Coming to the third health topic today, as it is Diabetic nephropathy.
3. Diabetic nephropathy:
·        Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis which lead to papillary necrosis
·        Glomerular disease and nephrotic syndrome then end stage renal disease
N.B.:
§  Diabetic glomerulosclerosis may be diffuse or nodular, nodular one is called as kimmelstiel Wilson syndrome

·        Ischemic lesions due to hypertrophy of afferent and efferent arterioles.
retinopathy
Wow, really long one this time so I will finish this cool medical article, and I will continue this health topic in next amazing medical article.
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Good bye for now,
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