Respiratory system

Welcome all to my short medical articles which contain latest information about health.

Previously, we talked about many health topics including nutrition, nutrients, DM and anemia. So now I will talk about a new health topic, I will talk aboyt respiratory system so let us go and read this amazing medical article.

Firstly, I will go in some anatomy and physiology of respiratory system:

•    The upper respiratory tract includes the nose, nasopharynx and larynx. It is lined by vascular mucous membranes with ciliated epithelium on their surface.
•    The lower respiratory tract includes the trachea and bronchi. It is lined by ciliated epithelium.
•    The larynx and large bronchi are rich in sensory receptors involved in the cough reflex.
•    The alveoli are lined with flattened epithelial Cells (type I pneumocytes) and cuboidal type II pneumocytes.
•    Type II pneumocytes can divide and reconstitute type I pneumocytes after injury.
•    There are about 300 million alveoli in each lung; their total surface area is 40-80m2
lung anatomy

After that I will give some latest health news about nerve supply of the lung:
•    The parasympathetic supply is from vagus and the sympathetic from the sympathetic Chain.
•    The parietal pleura is innervated from intercostal and phrenic nerves while the visceral pleura has no innervation.
So here we know anatomy, physiology and nerve supply so now we reach factors controlling breathing:
•    Discharges arising from respiratory center in brain stem to motor discharges from respiratory center travel via the Phrenic and intercostal nerves to the respiratory musculature.

Neurogenic factors

•    Impulses from limb receptors as in exercise
•    Impulses form pulmonary receptors sensitive to stretch
•    Juxtapulmonary capillary receptors (J receptors).
Chemical stimuli
•   Central chemo receptors sensitive to Co2 and H+ ions in blood due to acidosis
•   Peripheral chemo-receptors sensitive to ¯ O2
N.B.:
In Patients with GOAD the sensitivity to Co2 lost so that in these patients hypoxia is the chief stimulus to respiratory drive.
But how exactly our lungs defend themselves, let’s read the following line in this short medical article to know

Lung Defense:

1.  Particles removed from inspired air by the nose.
2.  The larynx acts as sphincter during cough.
3.  Protective agents in the lung lining fluids.
i.       Surfactant acts as bacterial opsonisation.
ii.      Immunoglobulin like IgA, IgM, IgG.
iii.     Complement.
iv.     Bactericidal proteins and proteinase inhibitors that protect host tissue during the inflammatory response.
4.       Alveolar macrophages.

Here to the end of this cool medical article. Keep tuned up and subscribe our blog to receive the most latest information about health and fitness.
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